American tax dollars are funding an Islamic school

The following has been cut and pasted from the Friendly Atheist:

Charter schools, like public schools, receive government money and must therefore stay out of the religion debate. That is to say there should be no proselytizing in the classroom one way or the other. The schools must remain secular.

Tarek ibn Ziyad Academy (TIZA) is a K-8 charter school in Inver Grove Heights, Minnesota. There’s not a single mention of Islam on the school’s website, not even on the description page.

Yet, the school is completely tearing down the wall of separation of state and mosque.

Katherine Kersten of the Star Tribune says that “TIZA is an Islamic school, funded by Minnesota taxpayers.

What does she mean by that?

TIZA has many characteristics that suggest a religious school. It shares the headquarters building of the Muslim American Society of Minnesota, whose mission is “establishing Islam in Minnesota.” The building also houses a mosque. TIZA’s executive director, Asad Zaman, is a Muslim imam, or religious leader, and its sponsor is an organization called Islamic Relief.

Students pray daily, the cafeteria serves halal food – permissible under Islamic law — and “Islamic Studies” is offered at the end of the school day.

Some of that seems benign… Islamic students have a right to pray (if they choose) and the school can offer programs for a heavily Islamic student population.

But Kersten has a smoking gun: Amanda Getz was a substitute teacher at the school one day last month.

Getz has plenty of evidence that suggests TIZA is completely overstepping its bounds.

She gives us insight into how TIZA is a taxpayer-funded Islamic school.

Arriving on a Friday, the Muslim holy day, she says she was told that the day’s schedule included a “school assembly” in the gym after lunch.

Before the assembly, she says she was told, her duties would include taking her fifth-grade students to the bathroom, four at a time, to perform “their ritual washing.”

Afterward, Getz said, “teachers led the kids into the gym, where a man dressed in white with a white cap, who had been at the school all day,” was preparing to lead prayer. Beside him, another man “was prostrating himself in prayer on a carpet as the students entered.”

“The prayer I saw was not voluntary,” Getz said. “The kids were corralled by adults and required to go to the assembly where prayer occurred.”

Islamic Studies was also incorporated into the school day. “When I arrived, I was told ‘after school we have Islamic Studies,’ and I might have to stay for hall duty,” Getz said. “The teachers had written assignments on the blackboard for classes like math and social studies. Islamic Studies was the last one — the board said the kids were studying the Qu’ran. The students were told to copy it into their planner, along with everything else. That gave me the impression that Islamic Studies was a subject like any other.

After school, Getz’s fifth-graders stayed in their classroom and the man in white who had led prayer in the gym came in to teach Islamic Studies. TIZA has in effect extended the school day — buses leave only after Islamic Studies is over. Getz did not see evidence of other extra-curricular activity, except for a group of small children playing outside. Significantly, 77 percent of TIZA parents say that their “main reason for choosing TIZA … was because of after-school programs conducted by various non-profit organizations at the end of the school period in the school building,” according to a TIZA report. TIZA may be the only school in Minnesota with this distinction.

How does something like this happen?

While Zaman says the school has been inspected “numerous times” by the Minnesota Department of Education, the MDoE only documents three visits to the school in five years, none of which focused on the school’s religious practices.

Zaman says the prayers are student-led and voluntary. Getz certainly didn’t think that was the case.

Kersten writes:

… prayer at TIZA does not appear to be spontaneously initiated by students, but rather scheduled, organized and promoted by school authorities.

How long will it be until the state puts a stop to this?

Some reviews are already underway.

The ACLU of Minnesota has launched an investigation of TIZA, and the Minnesota Department of Education has also begun a review.

Kersten gives us a final bit of analysis:

TIZA’s operation as a public, taxpayer-funded school is troubling on several fronts. TIZA is skirting the law by operating what is essentially an Islamic school at taxpayer expense. The Department of Education has failed to provide the oversight necessary to catch these illegalities, and appears to lack the tools to do so. In addition, there’s a double standard at work here — if TIZA were a Christian school, it would likely be gone in a heartbeat.

TIZA is now being held up as a national model for a new kind of charter school. If it passes legal muster, Minnesota taxpayers may soon find themselves footing the bill for a separate system of education for Muslims.

This story needs to be spread — hell, it’s a topic on which atheists and Christians should all be able to agree.

It’d be nice if Muslim Congressmen Keith Ellison and Andre Carson spoke out against public funding of this school as well.

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  1. National FORUM of Educational Administration and Supervision Journal
    Volume 26, Number 1, 2008-09

    An Exploratory Phenomenological Study of African American Male Pre-Service Teachers at a Historical Black University in the Mid-South

    Lucian Yates, III, Dean
    Barry A. Pelphrey, Associate Dean
    Patricia A. Smith, Assistant Professor
    The Whitlowe R. Green College of Education
    Prairie View A&M University
    Member of the Texas A&M University System
    Prairie View, Texas

    ________________________________________________________________________
    ABSTRACT
    This exploratory phenomenological study was conducted to ascertain which factors caused African American male pre-service teachers to persist at a HBCU in the Mid-South. The work is grounded in the conceptual framework called resiliency. Resiliency asks the question, “How do children, adolescents, and young people “make it” when they are exposed to or face major stress and adversity? The results of this study point to what are commonly called “protective factors” that exist in the lives of these young men. They are: (1) families/communities, (2) the individual, and (3) the school.
    Note: Reprinted with permission by Dr. William Allan Kritsonis, Editor-in-Chief, National FORUM Journals – National FORUM AERJ, 21 (3) 2008. To see entire article, go to: http://www.nationalforum.com
    ______________________________________________________________________

    Concluding Remarks

    This study underscored the notion that despite the abject conditions that many African American males face in the country and despite the current conditions and dearth of African American male teachers in America’s schools, colleges or schools of education can create programs and conditions that will improve the number of African American males in the teaching profession. This article showcases the work done by a program called Protégés and Provocateurs at a small HBCU in the mid-south. Replication of this model and further research is suggested to triangulate and institutionalize these results.

    Formatted by Dr. Mary Alice Kritsonis, National Research and Manuscript Preparation Editor, National FORUM Journals, Houston, Texas. http://www.nationalforum.com

  2. National FORUM of Applied Education Research Journal (AERJ)
    22 (3) 2008

    THREE FACTORS CONTRIBUTING TO AFRICAN AMERICAN MALES BEING PLACED INTO SPECIAL EDUCATION CLASSES: NATIONAL IMPLICATIONS

    Alicia Sands
    Teacher
    Aldine Independent School District
    Houston, Texas

    Andalyn Sands
    Teacher
    Aldine Independent School District
    Houston, Texas

    William Allan Kritsonis, PhD
    Professor and Faculty Mentor
    PhD Program in Educational Leadership
    The Whitlowe R. Green College of Education
    Prairie View A&M University
    Member of the Texas A&M University System
    Visiting Lecturer (2005)
    Oxford Round Table
    University of Oxford, Oxford, England
    Distinguished Alumnus (2004)
    College of Education and Professional Studies
    Central Washington University

    Abstract

    Almost daily African American males continue to be placed in special education classes. The purpose of this article is to discuss the factors that cause them to be placed into these classes. More specifically, the authors will present three major factors that are being used to place African American males into Special Education.

    Introduction

    In a time where emphasis is placed on diversity and the inclusion of minorities in all aspects of educational life it is truly ironic that one aspect of school where minorities are overly represented is a source of great controversy. While minority students by definition do not make up the majority of students in general education, they make a disproportionately large segment of special education students and are much more likely to be placed in special education than their white counterparts (Simmons, Skiba, Poloni-Staudinger, Gallini, & Feggins-Azziz, 2006). African American students are overrepresented in restrictive educational environments and underrepresented in less restrictive environments (Simmons, Skiba, Poloni-Staudinger, Gallini, & Feggins-Azziz, 2006). Minority students, particularly African American males, are being placed in special education classes at alarming rates. Some of the reasons young African American males end up being overly represented in special education classes are the ineffectiveness of most school systems in recognizing the academic abilities and learning styles of African American males, the cultural bias of standardized testing, and the economic and social factors that greatly influence the environments that many African American males grow up in. It is going to take an extensive period of time and a great amount of researching before the problems of African American in classrooms can successfully be dealt with.

    Purpose of the Article

    The purpose of this article is to discuss the factors that cause them to be placed into these classes. More specifically, this article will go into detail about the three major factors that are being used to place African American males into Special Education.

    Factors Affecting African American Males’ Placement in Special Education

    The first factor is that African American males learn and are intellectually stimulated in ways that cannot be satisfied by the conventional learning environment. Many African American students are field dependent learners. Field dependent learners thrive in-group learning situations and need steady instruction and verbal direction to do well academically. Patton states that the reason this can’t be done properly is because special education is labeled borne by students and often serves as a stigma producing negative effects on the bearer or the label and others interacting with the stigmatized individual (1998). This discourages the student and causes him to act out to try and take the negative attention off of him and to turn it into positive attention.
    The second factor is that African American males are disciplined more often, i.e. suspension detention, etc. than their white counterparts (Harry and Anderson, 1994). While some may see this as a sign of the unruliness of the African American male, it can also be seen as an indicator that many teachers and furthermore school systems are not equipped to address the needs of African American males. This again points to the idea that a field dependent is going to have trouble in an environment where he or she is discouraged from talking or conferring with others, and is encouraged for working independently. That type of environment does not suit a field dependent learner’s ability to learn and creates an environment where or she is more likely to fail or be excluded. When these African American students are excluded they are placed in special education classes.
    The third factor contributing to African American students being placed in special education classes is poverty. Students are at a greater risk of being placed in special education when they are poor, of a minority race, or speak a language other than English (Obiakor and Utely, 1998). There are four assumptions that researchers Simmons, Skiba, Poloni-Staudinger, Feggins-Azziz, & Chung believe are linked to poverty and disproportionality (2005). These four assumptions are:

    1) Minority students are disproportionately poor and hence are more likely to be exposed to a variety of sociodemographic stressors associated with poverty.
    2) Factors associated with living in poverty leave children less developmentally ready for schooling and ultimately yield negative academic and behavioral outcomes.
    3) Students who are low achieving or at risk for negative behavioral outcomes are more likely to be referred to, and ultimately found eligible for, special education service.
    4) Therefore, poverty in an important contributing factor that increases the risk, presumably in a linear fashion, of special education placement for minority students.

    The results found that poverty affects individual school readiness. Community poverty also reduces the resources available to schools in that community (Simmons, Skiba, Poloni-Staudinger, Feggins-Azziz, & Chung 2005). These findings aid in the idea that without school readiness students will not be up to par with their peers academically and will have no choice but to be placed into special education classes. The fact that all African American males are a part of a minority and that a large amount of them are poor makes them statistically more likely to be placed in special education.

    Concluding Remarks

    In conclusion, African American males are being placed in special education classes at a startling rate. While African American males are not immune from having any type of disability that would cause them to be placed in special education they should not be more susceptible to the disorders than any other racial or ethnic group. African American males may learn differently, but it does not mean that they cannot learn and that they cannot learn in a general education setting. It is up to educators and administrators to salvage the educations of students that are being isolated and in many cases losing their chances at a quality education in special education classrooms. Educators must step up to make education comprehensive, challenging, and most of all, inclusive.

    References

    Harry B., & Anderson, M. (1994). The disproportionate placement of African
    American males in special education programs: A critique of the process.
    The Journal of Negro Education, 63, 602-619.
    Patton, J. M. (1998). The disproportionate representation of African Americans in special education: Looking behind the curtain for understanding and solutions. The Journal of Special Education, 32(1), 25-31.
    Simmons, A. B., Skiba R. J., Poloni-Staudinger L., Feggins-Azziz R., & Chung-Guen C. (2005). Unproven links: Can poverty explain ethnic disproportionality in special education? The Journal of Special Education, 39(3), 130-144.
    Simmons A. B., Skiba R.J., Poloni-Staudinger L., Gallini S., & Feggins-Azziz, R. (2006). Disparate access: The disproportionality of African America students with disabilities across educational environments. Council for Exceptional Children, 72(4), 411-424.
    Utely, C. & Obiakor F. (1998). Addressing diversity in special education research. Retrieved July 5, 2007, from http://library.educationworld.net/a11/a11-146.html

    Formatted by Dr. Mary Alice Kritsonis, National Research and Manuscript Preparation Editor, National FORUM Journals, Houston, Texas. http://www.nationalforum.com

  3. Writing for Professional Publication in National Refereed Journals A Session for Faculty and Doctoral Students

    University of Minnesota
    College of Education

    July 3, 2008

    William Allan Kritsonis, PhD
    Professor
    PhD Program in Educational Leadership
    Prairie View A&M University/The Texas A&M University System

    1. Professional reasons for writing for publication
    2. Personal reasons for writing for publication
    3. How real writers behave
    4. Writer’s write for the following reasons
    5. How to get started
    6. What will “sell” the editor on your work?
    7. Formula: Brilliant Ideas + Good Luck + Knowing the Right People = Publication
    8. On scholarly work
    9. Reasons to write and publish journal articles
    10. Writing and publishing journal articles enables you to…
    11. Three basic types of articles: practical – review or theoretical – research
    12. Quantitative Studies
    13. Qualitative Research
    14. On writing books
    15. Four phases of book publishing (Fun – Drudgery – Torture – Waiting)
    16. Some reasons to write a book
    17. Where does the dollar go after a book is published?
    18. What do editors and reviewers really want?
    19. Earning approval from editors and reviewers
    20. What to remember about bad writing
    21. How to get fired as a reviewer
    22. Publish or perish or teach or impeach
    23. I’ve been rejected many times – should I give up?
    24. In writing, how you read is important
    25. How teachable is writing?
    26. “I can’t seem to tell how my writing is going while I am doing it. Can you help?
    27. Remember your purpose in writing
    28. What differentiates ordinary writing from writing with style
    29. It must get somewhat easier to write, otherwise, how would some authors become so prolific?
    30. If writing for publication does not prove to be lucrative, why bother?
    31. Why creative work is worthwhile
    32. Show respect for your writing. It is about what the readers should know. If this puts a strain on a professional relationship, then so be it.
    33. “Why I Write” (Orwell) Sheer egoism, aesthetic enthusiasm, historical impulse, and political purpose.
    34. What really makes an academic write?
    35. The Writer’s Essential Tools – words and the power to face unpleasant facts.
    36. No human activity can sap the strength from body and life from spirit as much as writing in which one doesn’t believe.
    37. “Because it was there.” Edmund Hillary. And with this comment he supplied generations with a ready-made and unanswerable defense for any new undertaking even writing.
    38. Why we write.
    39. Climbing Your Own Mountain
    40. Be yourself. Have fun writing.

    Please list any other topics you want Dr. Kritsonis to discuss.
    281-550-5700 Home; Cell: 832-483-7889 – williamkritsonis@yahoo.com

  4. Dr. William Allan Kritsonis Inducted into the William H. Parker Leadership Academy Hall of Honor

    Remarks by Angela Stevens McNeil
    July 26th 2008

    Good Morning. My name is Angela Stevens McNeil and I have the privilege of introducing the next Hall of Honor Inductee, Dr. William Allan Kritsonis. Dr. Kritsonis was chosen because of his dedication to the educational advancement of Prairie View A&M University students. He earned a Bachelor’s degree in 1969 from Central Washington University in Ellensburg, Washington. In 1971, he earned his Master’s in Education from Seattle Pacific University. In 1976, he earned his PhD from the University of Iowa.
    Dr. Kritsonis has served and blessed the field of education as a teacher, principal, superintendent of schools, director of student teaching and field experiences, invited guest professor, author, consultant, editor-in-chief, and publisher. He has also earned tenure as a professor at the highest academic rank at two major universities.
    In 2005, Dr. Kritsonis was an Invited Visiting Lecturer at the Oxford Round Table at Oriel College in the University of Oxford, Oxford, England. His lecture was entitled the Ways of Knowing through the Realms of Meaning.
    In 2004, Dr. William Allan Kritsonis was recognized as the Central Washington University Alumni Association Distinguished Alumnus for the College of Education and Professional Studies.
    Dr. William Kritsonis is a well respected author of more than 500 articles in professional journals and several books. In 1983, Dr. Kritsonis founded the NATIONAL FORUM JOURNALS. These publications represent a group of highly respected scholarly academic periodicals. In 2004, he established the DOCTORAL FORUM – National Journal for Publishing and Mentoring Doctoral Student Research. The DOCTORAL FORUM is the only refereed journal in America committed to publishing doctoral students while they are enrolled in course work in their doctoral programs. Over 300 articles have been published by doctorate and master’s degree students and most are indexed in ERIC.
    Currently, Dr. Kritsonis is a Professor in the PhD Program in Educational Leadership here at Prairie View A&M University.
    Dr. William Kritsonis has dedicated himself to the advancement of educational leadership and to the education of students at all levels. It is my honor to bring him to the stage at this time as a William H. Parker Leadership Academy Hall of Honor Inductee.

  5. Smaller Learning Communities: Pre-Implementation Planning Critical to Success

    Alex Torrez
    PhD Student in Educational Leadership
    The Whitlowe R. Green College of Education
    Prairie View A&M University
    Prairie View, Texas
    Assistant Superintendent
    Clear Creek Independent School District
    Houston, Texas

    William Allan Kritsonis, PhD
    Professor and Faculty Mentor
    PhD Program in Educational Leadership
    The Whitlowe R. Green College of Education
    Prairie View A&M University
    Member of the Texas A&M University System
    Visiting Lecturer (2005)
    Oxford Round Table
    University of Oxford, Oxford, England
    Distinguished Alumnus (2004)
    College of Education and Professional Studies
    Central Washington University

    ________________________________________________________________________
    ABSTRACT

    This article clearly defines the three crucial pre-implementation principles to maximize the success of Smaller Learning Communities in large high schools. Establishing clear understanding for the need of the SLC initiative is the first of these principles. Long term commitment to a sustained plan for relevant SLC professional learning opportunities will guarantee proper training, skills, and knowledge for those working within the SLC school. The final principle defined within this article is the establishment of a foundation for professional learning communities. The absence of any one of these principles can seriously affect the success of a SLC school.
    ________________________________________________________________________

    Introduction

    Implementing smaller learning communities in large schools can be argued as the best way to advance student achievement and improve teacher professional learning. Research has been rapidly accumulating that, as far as high schools is concerned size does matter-and smaller is better (Daniels, Bizar, and Zemelman 2001). Student achievement in small schools is superior to that in large schools (Bates 1993; Eberts, Kehoe, and Stone 1982; Eicherstein 1994; Fowler and Walberg 1991; Kershaw and Blank 1993; Miller, Ellsworth, and Howell 1986; Robinson-Lewis 1991; Walberg 1992) (as cited in Cotton, 1996). Most would agree that SLC’s alone will not solve all academic gaps. Benefits such as improved collegiality and collaboration among teachers combined with improved personalized student-teacher relationships would seem to be sufficient factors to convince educators to embrace the SLC model. Limited research supports the superiority of large schools over small schools. Educators continue to struggle with successful implementation and sustainability of the small school concept.

    The Purpose of this Article

    The purpose of this article is to assist schools in recognizing the importance of the preparation required during the pre-implementation phase of the SLC initiative. To insure the successful initiation of the SLC model, schools must not overlook the importance and commitment to professional learning. Schools not willing to make a commitment to pre-implementation education and preparation are likely to experience slow and inconsistent change as a result.

    Understanding the Need for a SLC

    Establishing the need for SLC’s is fundamental for creating the understanding and support required to begin. Understanding the important concepts that make SLC’s worth studying starts with the end in mind, the child. Educators and students in mega high schools are familiar with the reality that developing a supportive and nurturing atmosphere is difficult. Students in large high schools can go through their entire high school experience and potentially not have the same group of students in class more than once. Each year students adjust to a new set of teachers who have limited or no history with the student. This traditional setting decreases the potential of establishing meaningful relationships. Studies have established that students need relationships with both peers and adults as part of a healthy learning environment. Adult connections and personalization improves the school experience.

    Each student needs to know at least one adult in the school is closely concerned with his or her fate…The relationship between the student and the advocate should ensure that no youngster experiences the sense of isolation that frequently engulfs teenagers during this critical period of their lives. Having someone on his or her side can help a young person feel a part of the school community (National Association of Secondary Principals, 1996, p. 31). If high achievement for all students is the goal of reform, then personalization and a rigorous curriculum are two essential ingredients. Although some students might be able to make it though four years of high school despite the lack of any personal connections, all students require a supportive environment-some more than others. Creating that environment is essential to bringing learning to fruition. (National Association of Secondary Principals, 2004, p. 67)

    An increased emphasis on strengthening relationships with students is at the center of the SLC model. It is imperative to establish a clear understanding of what that means to teachers and staff as well as what is expected of them. Planning ongoing professional learning that will assist the faculty in understanding the changes that need to occur will be at the focal point of creating understanding and embracing relationships. Although few would argue that teachers have been historically excellent mentors, the focus on more meaningful student relationships must be implemented correctly or it could be perceived as an extra responsibility added to an already difficult profession.

    Pre-Implementation Professional Learning

    Campus teams working in the pre-implementation stage must be fully committed to a sustained plan that will provide relevant SLC professional learning. The planning of professional learning during pre-implementation is often overlooked by school administrators. When limited planning or little effort is taken to provide relevant professional learning opportunities that ensure staff members’ deep understanding of the skills needed for using the new practices a SLC model will find it difficult to succeed. Too often, unfortunately, little care is taken to provide professional learning that insures staff members’ deep understanding of content and development of skills for using new practices (Hord and Sommers 2007). Professional learning that assists the process by creating a clear understanding of the iniative and the components that will be needed to create consensus for the initiative are critical to the process from the beginning to full implementation.
    Below is a list of topics that require professional learning during pre-implementation:

    • What is a professional learning communities
    • Professional learning communities individual and team responsibilities
    • How to develop interdisciplinary lessons
    • Interdisciplinary teaching techniques
    • Use of advisory period
    • Building support for individual and student groups
    • Building capacity in the program
    • Sustained leadership
    • Team stability
    • Articulation with college/university systems
    • Building community support

    Professional Learning Community
    Working as an effective professional learning community is important to the early success of the SLC initiative. The first and most fundamental task of building a collaborative culture is to bring together those people whose responsibilities create an inherent mutual interest in exploring the critical question of PLC (DuFour, DuFour, Eaker, & Many, 2006). The challenge for administrators is overcoming the established traditional school and familiar structure that creates an environment of isolation for teachers. This isolation results in a natural disconnection from colleagues and limits opportunities to share the educational process. Department level meetings, although informative and critical to communication, are not in most cases characterized as a professional learning community. The importance of providing training that assists teachers in the process of working together as well as emphasizes the impact that professional collaboration has on both students and teachers is a powerful step. Allowing teachers to collaborate without appropriate training or understanding why they are collaborating has the potential of creating frustration due to a lack of common experience in the process of working together and the expected outcomes of such efforts. In fact, we are convinced that one of the most common mistakes school administrators make in the implementation of improvement initiatives is to focus exclusively on the “how” while being inattentive to why (Dufour, Dufour, Eaker, & Many, 2006)
    A key to implementing a PLC that embraces collaboration will require a commitment to team planning time. Allowing collaboration time is important however allowing collaboration time during the school day is a tremendous reassurance to the commitment of SLC implementation. Expecting teachers to work in professional learning communities and creating outcomes that are benefiting the process of collaborative lesson development, discussions regarding teaching strategies, and opportunities for discussing strategies to assists struggling learners is more meaningful when a time commitment from the district is recognized.

    Creating the Right Conditions

    Under the right conditions, the problems of commitment, alignment, motivation, and change largely melt away (Collins 2001). Implementation teams that understand the importance of creating the right conditions start by establishing a foundation that a change from the present system is beneficial for students. Positive factors such as opportunities for increased and improved student relationships with peers and faculty resulting in improved attendance, decreased dropout rate, and improved academic success are keys to convincing educators to embrace the necessity for SLC’s. Comprehending that the process involves a different level of collaboration than most educators are familiar with requires a paradigm shift for many teachers. Benefits such as engaging in professional conversations in relation to educational practices and resolving common instructional issues are important. In addition the by product of building professional relationships strengthens the bonds between teachers creating stronger more meaningful support groups.

    Concluding Remarks
    Finally the success of SLC’s is dependent on a sound pre-implementation plan that is systematic and focused on creating a common and clear understanding of the initaitive. The outcome and the impact on students as well as teachers is the driving force that necessitates a smooth transition from the present structure.

    References
    Cotton K. (1996, May). School size, school climate and student performance. Retrieved November 3, 2007, from The Northwest Regional Educational Laboratory website: http://www.nwrel.org
    DuFour, R., DuFour, R., Eaker, R., and Many, T. (2006). Learning by doing: A handbook for professional learning communities at work. Bloomington, IN: Solution Tree (formerly National Educational Service).
    Daniels, D., Bizar, M., and Zemelman, S. (2001). Rethinking high schools: Best practice in teaching, learning, and leadership. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.
    Hord, M. and Sommers, W.A. (2007). Leading professional learning communities: Voices from research and practice. Thousand Oaks. CA: Cowin Press.
    J. Collins, (2001). Good to great: Why some companies make the leap…and others don’t. New York: Harper Business.
    National Association of Secondary School Principals (1996). Breaking ranks: Changing an American institution. Reston, VA: Author.
    National Association of Secondary School Principals. (2004). Breaking ranks II: Strategies for leading high school reform. Reston, VA: Author.

  6. Dr. William Allan Kritsonis

    Dr. William Allan Kritsonis earned his BA in 1969 from Central Washington University, Ellensburg, Washington. In 1971, he earned his M.Ed. from Seattle Pacific University. In 1976, he earned his PhD from the University of Iowa. In 1981, he was a Visiting Scholar at Teachers College, Columbia University, New York, and in 1987 was a Visiting Scholar at Stanford University, Palo Alto, California. In June 2008, Dr. Kritsonis received the Doctor of Humane Letters, School of Graduate Studies from Southern Christian University. The ceremony was held at the Hilton Hotel in New Orleans, Louisiana.
    Dr. Kritsonis began his career as a teacher. He has served education as a principal, superintendent of schools, director of student teaching and field experiences, invited guest professor, author, consultant, editor-in-chief, and publisher. Dr. Kritsonis has served in professorial roles at Central Washington University, Washington; Salisbury State University, Maryland; Northwestern State University, Louisiana; McNeese State University, Louisiana; and Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge in the Department of Administrative and Foundational Services. Dr. Kritsonis has earned tenure as a professor at the highest academic rank at two major universities.
    Dr. Kritsonis lectures and conducts seminars and workshops on a variety of topics. He is author of more than 500 articles in professional journals and several books. His popular book SCHOOL DISCIPLINE: The Art of Survival (2000) is scheduled for its fourth edition. Dr. Kritsonis’ seminar and workshop on Writing for Professional Publication has been very popular with both professors and practitioners. Persons in attendance generate an article to be published in a refereed journal at the national or international levels.
    In 2008, Dr. Kritsonis was inducted into the William H. Parker Leadership Academy Hall of Honor, Graduate School, Prairie View A&M University – The Texas A&M University System. He was nominated by doctoral and master’s degree students. Dr. Kritsonis’ book Non-Renewal of Public School Personnel Contracts: Selected Supreme and District Court Decisions in Accordance with the Due Process of Law is scheduled for publication by The Edwin Mellen Press, Lewiston, New York.
    In 2007, Dr. Kritsonis’ version of the book Ways of Knowing Through the Realms of Meaning (858 pages) was published in the United States of America in cooperation with partial financial support of Visiting Lecturers, Oxford Round Table (2005). The book is the product of a collaborative twenty-four year effort started in 1978 with the late Dr. Philip H. Phenix. Dr. Kritsonis was in continuous communication with Dr. Phenix until his death in 2002. Dr. Kritsonis was the lead author of the textbook Practical Applications of Educational Research and Basic Statistics. The text provides practical content knowledge in research for graduate students at the doctoral and master’s levels. Dr. Kritsonis was invited to write a history and philosophy of education for the ABC-CLIO Encyclopedia of World History.
    In 2006, Dr. Kritsonis published two articles in the Two-Volume Set of the Encyclopedia of Educational Leadership and Administration published by SAGE Publications, Thousand Oaks, California. He is a National Reviewer for the Journal of Research on Leadership, University Council for Educational Administration (UCEA).
    In 2005, Dr. Kritsonis was an Invited Visiting Lecturer at the Oxford Round Table at Oriel College in the University of Oxford, Oxford, England. His lecture was entitled the Ways of Knowing Through the Realms of Meaning.
    In 2004, Dr. William Allan Kritsonis was recognized as the Central Washington University Alumni Association Distinguished Alumnus for the College of Education and Professional Studies. Dr. Kritsonis was nominated by alumni, former students, friends, faculty, and staff. Final selection was made by the Alumni Association Board of Directors. Recipients are CWU graduates of 20 years or more and are recognized for achievement in their professional field and have made a positive contribution to society. For the second consecutive year, U.S. News and World Report placed Central Washington University among the top elite public institutions in the west. CWU was 12th on the list in the 2006 On-Line Education of “America’s Best Colleges.”
    In 2002, Dr. Kritsonis published the textbook William Kritsonis, PhD on Schooling. It is used by many professors at colleges and universities throughout the nation and abroad.
    Dr. Kritsonis is founder of NATIONAL FORUM JOURNALS (since 1983). These publications represent a group of highly respected scholarly academic periodicals. Over 4,000 writers have been published in these refereed, peer-reviewed periodicals. In 1983, he founded the National FORUM of Educational Administration and Supervision – now acclaimed by many as the United States’ leading recognized scholarly academic refereed journal in educational administration, leadership, and supervision.
    In 1987, Dr. Kritsonis founded the National FORUM of Applied Educational Research Journal whose aim is to conjoin the efforts of applied educational researchers world-wide with those of practitioners in education. He founded the National FORUM of Teacher Education Journal, National FORUM of Special Education Journal, National FORUM of Multicultural Issues Journal, International Journal of Scholarly Academic Intellectual Diversity, International Journal of Management, Business, and Administration, and the DOCTORAL FORUM – National Journal for Publishing and Mentoring Doctoral Student Research. The DOCTORAL FORUM is the only refereed journal in America committed to publishing doctoral students while they are enrolled in course work in their doctoral programs. In 1997, he established the Online Journal Division of National FORUM Journals that publishes academic scholarly refereed articles daily on the website: http://www.nationalforum.com. Over 500 professors have published online. In January 2007, Dr. Kritsonis established Focus: On Colleges, Universities, and Schools.
    Dr. Kritsonis has traveled and lectured throughout the United States and world-wide. Some recent international tours include Australia, New Zealand, Tasmania, Turkey, Italy, Greece, Monte Carlo, England, Holland, Denmark, Sweden, Finland, Russia, Estonia, Poland, Germany, and many more.
    Currently, Dr. Kritsonis is Professor of Educational Leadership at Prairie View A&M University – Member of the Texas A&M University System. He teaches in the newly established PhD Program in Educational Leadership. Dr. Kritsonis taught the Inaugural class session in the doctoral program at the start of the fall 2004 academic year. In October 2006, Dr. Kritsonis chaired the first doctoral student to earn a PhD in Educational Leadership at Prairie View A&M University. He lives in Houston, Texas.

  7. 25th Year Anniversary of National FORUM Journals
    Founded in 1983
    William Allan Kritsonis’ Contribution to Education

    Arthur L. Petterway, PhD
    Principal
    Houston Independent School District
    Houston, Texas

    ABSTRACT
    This year marks the 25th Year Anniversary of the founding of National FORUM Journals by Dr. William Allan Kritsonis. The following snapshot of the career of Dr. Kritsonis is a small tribute to his contribution to education.
    __________________________________________________________________________

    Founder of National FORUM Journals

    Dr. Kritsonis is founder of NATIONAL FORUM JOURNALS (since 1983). These publications represent a group of highly respected scholarly academic periodicals. Over 4,000 writers have been published in these academic, scholarly, refereed, peer-reviewed journals.

    Dr. Kritsonis Lectures at the University of Oxford, Oxford, England

    In 2005, Dr. Kritsonis was an Invited Visiting Lecturer at the Oxford Round Table at Oriel College in the University of Oxford, Oxford, England. His lecture was entitled the Ways of Knowing Through the Realms of Meaning.

    Dr. Kritsonis Recognized as Distinguished Alumnus

    In 2004, Dr. William Allan Kritsonis was recognized as the Central Washington University Alumni Association Distinguished Alumnus for the College of Education and
    Professional Studies. Dr. Kritsonis was nominated by alumni, former students, friends,
    faculty, and staff. Final selection was made by the Alumni Association Board of Directors.
    Recipients are CWU graduates of 20 years or more and are recognized for achievement in their professional field and have made a positive contribution to society. For

    the second consecutive year, U.S. News and World Report placed Central Washington
    University among the top elite public institutions in the west. CWU was 12th on the list in the 2006 On-Line Education of “America’s Best Colleges.”

    Educational Background

    Dr. William Allan Kritsonis earned his BA in 1969 from Central Washington University, Ellensburg, Washington. In 1971, he earned his M.Ed. from Seattle Pacific University. In 1976, he earned his PhD from the University of Iowa. In 1981, he was a Visiting Scholar at Teachers College, Columbia University, New York, and in 1987 was a Visiting Scholar at Stanford University, Palo Alto, California.

    Professional Experience

    Dr. Kritsonis began his career as a teacher. He has served education as a principal, superintendent of schools, director of student teaching and field experiences, invited guest professor, author, consultant, editor-in-chief, and publisher. Dr. Kritsonis has earned tenure as a professor at the highest academic rank at two major universities.

    Books – Articles – Lectures – Workshops

    Dr. Kritsonis lectures and conducts seminars and workshops on a variety of topics. He is author of more than 500 articles in professional journals and several books. His popular book SCHOOL DISCIPLINE: The Art of Survival is scheduled for its fourth edition. He is the author of the textbook William Kritsonis, PhD on Schooling that is used by many professors at colleges and universities throughout the nation and abroad.
    In 2007, Dr. Kritsonis’ version of the book of Ways of Knowing Through the Realms of Meaning (858 pages) was published in the United States of America in cooperation with partial financial support of Visiting Lecturers, Oxford Round Table (2005). The book is the product of a collaborative twenty-four year effort started in 1978 with the late Dr. Philip H. Phenix. Dr. Kritsonis was in continuous communication with Dr. Phenix until his death in 2002.
    In 2007, Dr. Kritsonis was the lead author of the textbook Practical Applications of Educational Research and Basic Statistics. The text provides practical content knowledge in research for graduate students at the doctoral and master’s levels.
    In 2008, Dr. Kritsonis’ book Non-Renewal of Public School Personnel Contracts: Selected Supreme and District Court Decisions in Accordance with the Due Process of Law was published by The Edwin Mellen Press, Lewiston, New York.
    Dr. Kritsonis’ seminar and workshop on Writing for Professional Publication has
    been very popular with both professors and practitioners. Persons in attendance generate an
    article to be published in a refereed journal at the national or international levels. Dr. Kritsonis has traveled and lectured throughout the United States and world-wide. Some recent international tours include Australia, New Zealand, Tasmania, Turkey, Italy, Greece,

    Monte Carlo, England, Holland, Denmark, Sweden, Finland, Russia, Estonia, Poland,
    Germany, and many more.

    Founder of National FORUM Journals – Over 4,000 Professors Published

    Dr. Kritsonis is founder of NATIONAL FORUM JOURNALS (since 1983). These publications represent a group of highly respected scholarly academic periodicals. Over 4,000 writers have been published in these refereed, peer-reviewed periodicals. In 1983, he founded the National FORUM of Educational Administration and Supervision – now acclaimed by many as the United States’ leading recognized scholarly academic refereed journal in educational administration, leadership, and supervision.
    In 1987, Dr. Kritsonis founded the National FORUM of Applied Educational Research Journal whose aim is to conjoin the efforts of applied educational researchers world-wide with those of practitioners in education. He founded the National FORUM of Teacher Education Journal, National FORUM of Special Education Journal, National FORUM of Multicultural Issues Journal, International Journal of Scholarly Academic Intellectual Diversity, International Journal of Management, Business, and Administration, and the DOCTORAL FORUM – National Journal for Publishing and Mentoring Doctoral Student Research. The DOCTORAL FORUM is the only refereed journal in America committed to publishing doctoral students while they are enrolled in course work in their doctoral programs. In 1997, he established the Online Journal Division of National FORUM Journals that publishes academic scholarly refereed articles daily on the website: http://www.nationalforum.com. Over 600 professors have published online. In January 2007, Dr. Kritsonis established the National Journal: Focus On Colleges, Universities, and Schools.

    Professorial Roles

    Dr. Kritsonis has served in professorial roles at Central Washington University, Washington; Salisbury State University, Maryland; Northwestern State University, Louisiana; McNeese State University, Louisiana; and Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge in the Department of Administrative and Foundational Services.
    In 2006, Dr. Kritsonis published two articles in the Two-Volume Set of the Encyclopedia of Educational Leadership and Administration published by SAGE Publications, Thousand Oaks, California. He is a National Reviewer for the Journal of Research on Leadership, University Council for Educational Administration (UCEA).
    In 2007, Dr. Kritsonis was invited to write a history and philosophy of education for the ABC-CLIO Encyclopedia of World History.
    Currently, Dr. Kritsonis is Professor of Educational Leadership at Prairie View A&M University – Member of the Texas A&M University System. He teaches in the newly established PhD Program in Educational Leadership. Dr. Kritsonis taught the Inaugural class session in the doctoral program at the start of the fall 2004 academic year. In October 2006, Dr. Kritsonis chaired the first doctoral student to earn a PhD in Educational Leadership at Prairie View A&M University. He lives in Houston, Texas.

  8. William Allan Kritsonis, PhD – SELECTED PUBLICATIONS

    2008

    Reprinted with permission: “Educational Leaders as Stewards: Selecting A National Curriculum Guided by the Ways of Knowing Through the Realms of Meaning” Journal of the Massachusetts chapter of ASCD, Harvard University Chapter, Cambridge, Massachusetts. Upcoming issue to accentuate the importance of developing a whole child curriculum. Summer 2008.

    Hines, III, M.T., & Kritsonis (2008) An In-Depth Analysis of the Cognitive and Metacognitive Dimensions of African American Elementary Students’ Mathematical Problem Solving Skills. Focus On Colleges, Universities, and Schools, 2 (1)

    Morgan, M., & Kritsonis, W.A. (2008) Beyond the First Days of School: The Recruitment, Retention, and Development of Quality Teachers in Hard-to-Staff Schools: A National Focus. National FORUM of Educational Administration and Supervision Journal, 25 (3)

    Kritsonis, W.A., & Marshall, R.L.(2008) Doctoral Dissertation Advising: Keyes to Improvement of Completion Rates. National FORUM of Educational Administration and Supervision Journal, 25 (3)

    Laub, J.D., DeSpain, B.C., & Kritsonis, W.A. (2008) An Analysis of the Rural Public School Superintendency. National FORUM of Educational Administration and Supervision Journal, 25 (2)

    Torrez, A., & Kritsonis, W.A. (2008) Smaller Learning Communities: Pre-Implementation Planning Critical to Success. National FORUM of Applied Educational Research Journal, 21 (2)

    Ivy, Adam, I., Herrington, D.E., & Kritsonis, W.A.(2008). The Challenge of Building Professional Learning Communities: Getting Started. National FORUM of Applied Education Research Journal, 21 (2)

    McLeod, K., Tanner, T., & Kritsonis,W.A. (2008). National Impact: Model of a Culturally Active Classroom. National FORUM of Applied Educational Research Journal, 21 (2)

    Kritsonis, W.A. (2008) Functions of the Dissertation Advisor. National Journal: Focus On Colleges, Universities, and Schools, 2 (1)

    Hines, III, M., & Kritsonis, W.A. (2008). National Implications: Racial Differences in In-service Teachers’ Perceptions’ of Caucasian American Culturally Proficient School Leadership. National FORUM of Educational Administration and Supervision Journal, 25 (4)

    Morgan, M. M., & Kritsonis, W.A. (2008). The Real Philadelphia Experiment: How Benjamin Franklin’s 13 Virtues can Save a School from Itself. National FORUM of Teacher Education Journal, 18 (3)

    Herrington, D.E., Kritsonis, W.A., & Tanner, T. (2008). National Recommendations for Deconstructing Educational Leadership Courses: Re-Centering to Address the Needs of Students. National FORUM of Educational Administration and Supervision Journal, 25

    Butcher, J., & Kritsonis, W.A. (2008) A National Perspective: Utilizing the Postmodern Theoretical Paradigm to Close the Achievement Gap and Increase Student Success in Public Education America. National FORUM of Educational Administration and Supervision Journal, 25 (4)
    (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No ED499482)

    Egbe, R., Ivy, A., Moreland, B., Willis, L., Herrington, D.E., & Kritsonis, W.A. (2008). Ten Things to Consider When Developing a Survey or Assessment Instrument. National FORUM of Applied Educational Research Journal, 21 (3)

    Glasco, R.L., Herrington, D.E., & Kritsonis, W.A. (2008). Developing and Nuturing a Common Vision for Technology Integration in Education. National FORUM of Applied Educational Research Journal, 21 (3)

    Herrington, D.E., & Kritsonis, W.A. (2008). Essential Reflections for Non-Profits and School Prior to Writing and Submitting Grant Proposals. National FORUM of Applied Educational Research Journal, 21 (3)

    Cloud, M., & Kritsonis, W.A. (2008). National Implications: Implementing Postmodernistic Strategies and the Ways of Knowing Through the Realms of Meaning for the Improvement of Ethical Conduct for the Improvement of Public Education. National FORUM of Applied Educational Research Journal, 21 (3) (ERIC Documentation Reproduction Service No.ED499279)

    Watkins, D., & Kritsonis, W.A. (2008). Aristotle, Philosophy, and the Ways of Knowing Through the Realms of Meaning: A National Study on Integrating a Postmodernist Approach to Education and Student Academic Achievement. National FORUM of Applied Educational Research Journal, 21 (3)
    (ERIC Documentation Reproduction Service No.ED499545)

    Butcher, J., & Kritsonis, W.A. (2008). Implementing the Ways of Knowing Through the Realms of Meaning to Assist Leaders in Retaining Alternatively Certified Teachers: Six National Recommendations for Improving Education in the United States of America. National FORUM of Applied Educational Research Journal, 21 (3)
    (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No ED499483)

    Bowman, E., Herrington, D.E., & Kritsonis, W.A. (2008). Seven Ways to Increase At-Risk Student Participation in Extra-Curricular Activities. National FORUM of Teacher Education Journal, 18 (3)

    Puentes, H., Herrington, D.E., & Kritsonis, W.A. (2008). A Case Study with National Implications: Student Mobility and Academic Achievement at a Selected Elementary School Campus. National FORUM of Teacher Education Journal, 18 (3)

    Jedlicka,K., Herrington, D.E., & Kritsonis, W.A. (2008). The Persistence of Teacher Under-Utilization of Computer Technologies in the Classroom. National FORUM of Teacher Education Journal, 18 (3)

    Cloud, M., & Kritsonis, W.A. (2008). National Agenda: Implementing the Ways of Knowing Through the Realms of Meaning for the Improvement of Public Education. National FORUM of Teacher Education Journal, 18 (3)

    Smith, M.M., Herrington, D.E., Kritsonis, W.A., & Tanner, T. (2008). National Implications: Ten Things to Consider When Teaching Mathematics to African American Students. National FORUM of Multicultural Issues Journal, 5 (1)

    McLeod, K., Tanner, T., & Kritsonis, W.A. (2008). National Recommendations for Improving Cultural Diversity: Model of a Culturally Active Classroom Setting. National FORUM of Multicultural Issues Journal, 5 (1)

    Joshua, M.T., Joshua, A.M., Obi, F.B., Umoinyang, I.E., Ntukidem, E.P., Kritsonis, W.A., Tanner, T., & DeMoulin, D.F. (2008). Conceptualization and Perceptions of Teaching as an Artistic Form: National and International Implications for Evaluation and Assessment. International Journal of Scholarly Academic Intellectual Diversity, 11 (1)

    Joshua, A.M., Ukpong, E.M., Joshua, M.T., Kritsonis, W.A., Tanner, T., & DeMoulin, D.F. (2008). Distribution Patterns of the Four Fundamental Temperaments among Secondary School Students in Cross River State, Nigeria: National and International Implications. International Journal of Scholarly Academic Intellectual Diversity, 11 (1)

    Joshua, M.T., Bassey, S.W., Asim, A.E., Kritsonis, W.A., Tanner, T. & DeMoulin, D.F. (2008). National and International Implications for Universal Basic Education: Primary School Teachers’ Perceived and Conceived Continuous Assessment Difficulties and Reporting Competence in Cross River South, Nigeria. International Journal of Scholarly Academic Intellectual Diversity, 11 (1)

    Kritsonis, W. A. (2008). Functions of the Dissertation Advisor. National Journal: FOCUS On Colleges, Universities, and Schools, 2 (1)

    Watkins, D., & Kritsonis, W.A. (2008). National Promise for Student Academic Achievement and Success: Connecting Learning Utilizing the Ways of Knowing Through the Realms of Meaning. National Journal: FOCUS On Colleges, Universities, and Schools, 2 (1)

    Taylor, J.H., & Kritsonis, W.A. (2008) National Implications: Quality of Effort and Selected Demographic Variables Contributing to the Prediction of Cognitive Outcomes. National Journal: FOCUS On Colleges, Universities, and Schools, 2 (1)

    O’Brine,C.R., & Kritsonis, W.A. (2008). Segregation Through Brown vs. the Board of Education: A Setback or Landmark Case. DOCTORAL FORUM: National Journal for Publishing and Mentoring Doctoral Student Research, 5 (1)
    (ERIC Document Reproduction No.ED499169)

    Collins, C.J., & Kritsonis, W.A. (2008) National Agenda: Implementing Postmodern StrategiesTo Guide Educational Leaders in Creating Schools for Quality Learning in Public Education in America. DOCTORAL FORUM: National Journal for Publishing and Mentoring Doctoral Student Research, 5(1)
    (ERIC Document Reproduction No.ED499554)

    Coates-McBride, A., & Kritsonis, W.A. (2008). The M&M Effect-Assessing the Impact of Merit Pay on Teacher Motivation: National Implications. DOCTORAL FORUM: National Journal for Publishing and Mentoring Doctoral Student Research, 5 (1)
    (ERIC Document Reproduction No.ED499772)
    Terry, L.A., & Kritsonis, W.A. (2008). A National Issue: Whether the Teacher Turnover Effects Students’ Academic Performance? DOCTORAL FORUM: National Journal for Publishing and Mentoring Doctoral Student Research, 5 (1)
    (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No.ED499543)

    Walden, L., & Kritsonis, W.A. (2008). The Impact of the Correlation Between the No Child Left Behind Act’s High Stakes Testing and the Drop-Out Rates of Minority Students. DOCTORAL FORUM: National Journal for Publishing and Mentoring Doctoral Student Research, 5 (1)
    (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No.ED499541)

    Springs, M.A., & Kritsonis, W.A. (2008). National Implications: Practical Ways for Improving Student Self-Concept Through Student Achievement. DOCTORAL FORUM: National Journal for Publishing and Mentoring Doctoral Student Research, 5 (1)
    (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No.ED499551)

    Morgan, M., & Kritsonis, W.A. (2008). A National Focus: The Recruitment, Retention, and Development of Quality Teachers in Hard-to-Staff Schools. DOCTORAL FORUM: National Journal for Publishing and Mentoring Doctoral Student Research, 5 (1)
    (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No.499323)

    Charlton, D., & Kritsonis, W.A. (2008). The Documentation Process: The Administrator’s Role and the Interplay of Necessity, Support, and Collaboration. DOCTORAL FORUM: National Journal for Publishing and Mentoring Doctoral Student Research, 5 (1)
    (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No.ED499101)

    Henderson, F.T., & Kritsonis, W.A. (2008). Graduation Rates at Historically Black Colleges and Universities: A Review of the Literature. DOCTORAL FORUM: National Journal for Publishing and Mentoring Doctoral Student Research, 5 (1)

    Torrez, A., & Kritsonis, W.A. (2008). National Impact for Pre-Implementation of Smaller Learning Communities. DOCTORAL FORUM: National Journal for Publishing and Mentoring Doctoral Student Research, 5 (1)
    (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No.ED499477)

    Johnson, C., & Kritsonis, W.A. (2008) Impact of the Mathematics Curriculum on the Success of African American High School Students. National FORUM of Teacher Education Journal, 18(1& 2)

    Smith, Y.E., & Kritsonis, W.A. (2008) Leaving Good Teachers Behind: A Professional Dilemma. National FORUM of Teacher Education Journal, 18(1& 2)

    Norfleet, S., & Kritsonis, W.A. (2008) Educational Leadership for Improved School-Community Relations. National FORUM of Teacher Education Journal, 18(1& 2)

    Watkins, D., & Kritsonis, W.A. (2008) Utilizing the Ways of Knowing Through The Realms of Meaning for a Postmodern Approach to Effecting Change in Special Education. National FORUM of Teacher Education Journal, 18(1& 2)

    Townsell, R., & Kritsonis, W.A. (2008) Human Resource Management in Small Rural Districts: The Administrator’s Role in Recruitment, Hiring, and Staff Development. National FORUM of Teacher Education Journal, 18(1& 2
    (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No.ED497694)

    Love, A., & Kritsonis, W.A. (2008) A Principal’s Role in Retaining First Year Teachers. National FORUM of Teacher Education Journal, 18(1& 2)

    Jacobs, K.D., & Kritsonis, W.A. (2008) Utilizing The William Allan Kritsonis Balanced Teeter-Totter Model as a Means to Cultivate a Legacy of Transformational Leaders in Schools. National FORUM of Teacher Education Journal, 18(1& 2)

  9. William Allan Kritsonis, PhD

    The Adolescent’s Perception of Failure
    The following talk was delivered by William Allan Kritsonis during the summer of 1971 at Seattle Pacific University. At the time, Kritsonis was completing the master’s degree in education and the talk was given before a live audience of graduate students and professors, thus satisfying one of the special requirements needed for the degree. The talk influenced many people deeply and forced them to re-evaluate their own attitudes about success and failure.

    The Adolescent’s Perception of Failure

    Upwards of a thousand students commit suicide every year. They had their whole lives ahead of them, and somehow, they lost hope. No one cared, they thought; life was not worth living. They asked themselves: Is that all there is?
    Suicide is certainly the ultimate self-punishment for having failed. Life was no longer worth the struggle, the effort, the will.
    I would like to take a look with you at the concept of failure-at how adolescents in high school and college see it-and what we, as parents and teachers, have taught them about it.
    We have all had a part in it, and we have all had to come to grips with it and to decide what failure actually means to each of us individually.
    Success is important in our society, more important, surely, that the desire to live sanely and to enjoy the good things of life which one has worked for. Success for its own sake is valued-valued, and I believed at any cost, and the road to success rationalized in the name of the great American competitive way, at the expense of honest and, perhaps, sanity.
    The “F” for failure has become so feared that we in education have revamped our marking system in preference for U’s and E’s without revamping our attitudes -attitudes of those who should know.
    We are apt to be very objective when we look at our students-and we give
    them what they deserve and in doing so, feel very smug. We have given out the material, we have given the examinations and now it follows, as night follows day, that we give out the marks. Yet, we forget that there is much more that a teacher gives to his or students, willingly or unwillingly. A teacher gives an example of how to look at life and at people. And if failure is viewed as the worst fate, if it is something that is given the connotation of shame, unworthiness, and hopelessness, then indeed, we have taught much more than English or history or mathematics.
    Adolescence marks the trying period of search which may have the significant effects on subsequent personality structure, on later adjustments in the years that lie ahead. Probably, what brings the greatest amount of equalizing balance to the period of adolescence is the presence of significant people in the adolescent’s life. Since people become so very important to him, it is the importance of some people who have that ingredient of compassion who can help the adolescent come through this unfolding, transitional period into the fullness of adult life.
    The world is full of people who are fearful that they will fail at some tasks or goal and who usually manage to avoid trying for what they want because they construe failure as the worst of all possible crimes.
    In a study, it was found that competitive situations around two major motives: either to achieve success… or to avoid failure. The strivers-for success were found more likely to be middle-of-the-roaders in their aspirations or ambitions, where as the failure-avoider will be either excessively cautious or extravagantly reckless in the things he tries. Because failure is painful, he will choose either extreme rather than take the 50-50 chance.
    Feelings of adequacy and success may depend more on self-acceptance than on actual achievement. Regardless of actual test performance, self-accepting students tend to be optimistic, non-anxious, and non-competitive. Self-rejecting ones are anxious and unrealistic in goal-setting.
    In another study, the subjects were asked to rate themselves on a list of traits as they thought they were, as they hoped they were, as they feared they were, and as they thought others regarded them. The group had first been classified as stable and unstable on the basis of a personality inventory. The stable group rated themselves higher and there was less discrepancy between their self-ratings and the way they thought others would rate them. They were also better liked, better adjusted socially, less situation dominated, and showed less defensive behavior.
    Approximately half of those who enter college drop out. Many are in the highest levels of ability. When students drop out, it usually is understood that they have failed. At the college level, a great deal of attention has been given to the question: “What can we learn about those who have failed in the past that will enable us to reject similar persons who might apply for admission in the future?” Little consideration is given to the question: “What might the institution do to prevent failure, to help remedy shortcomings within the college and with the individual student, which produce failure?”
    Reasons for coming to college are always multiple. Stress is usually placed on one or another of these:
    - to get a better paying job
    - status of a degree
    - social life-all my friends are going
    - avoid work
    - get married
    - because of parents
    Many are disillusioned with what is expected of them. Many find that it’s the same old things as high school-all these things which aren’t practical. Others who were eager to learn find that it is not the kind of challenge they had expected.
    Many entering students are sorry about the time they wasted in high school. They didn’t try hard enough; they didn’t apply themselves; they were more interested in athletics, social life, or other things. If we go back a bit, we find that there were many things that they were concerned about during those days-some things which were, indeed, are more important to them at the time than geometry or American history, an which sometimes were far more necessary and pressing in order that they might grow up. But, those who observe the adolescent in high school are very often unaware of what he is facing and are not able to understand why he can’t buckle down. What they can’t understand is that the reason is…that there are many things the adolescent is trying to accomplish and school work often provides him with no stimulation, no incentive for interest or involvement. School is just a bore! And teachers are a bore! And adults, in general, are a bore! Adults are forever talking, but what they say often doesn’t seem to mean anything.
    A new interest can be sparked in school when there is a teacher who does mean something. But it takes more than one teacher to make a school program relevant. When competition and success are the significant ingredients of a program, then we are apt to be creating egocentric (or self-centered) intellectuals who gloat over their achievements as they look down on those who have successfully developed feelings of worthlessness because-they have lost and lost and lost, and fear that they will probably never win-and only those who win are important.
    Our task ought to be to help the adolescent to see that failure is neither good nor bad. It is, however, and inevitable fact of reality. The way we use it in our lives will determine, ultimately, its goodness or badness for us.
    Each of us must learn to live with certain limitations in ability. It is only when an individual falls consistently below the norm areas that seem important to him that inferior ability constitutes a serious limitation.
    From studies of both high and underachievers in high school, the pattern of the relationship between self-concept and achievement becomes clearer. There is a relationship between positive self-concept and high achievement, negative self-concept and under-achievement. The research does not indicate which is cause or effect. Chances are we can see a circular pattern beginning earlier with perception or experiences. Every experience contributes to the adolescent’s evolving picture of himself, which, in turn, becomes a guide to future action.
    Parental pressure for success seems to arise naturally out of a parent’s desire that this child must have the best that the world has to offer, yet…in the same breath, it may be that many of them see the failure which their son or daughter may face as a failure for themselves. Many parents want their children to be a credit to them, forgetting that if a child is a credit to itself, the other will follow naturally.
    Likewise, it is not important to be better than the next guy so much as it is to try to do our best. We should be our own chief and best competition. We cannot always achieve our goal, but we ought to find satisfaction in knowing we did the best we could. Too often, we are teaching the idea of striving for success in high school, in college, in athletics, in all the aspects of living, for the wrong reasons. Let’s change our own attitude about success and failure.

    A Thought in Words
    Chance favors those in motion. Zen

  10. (New Book)

    A Statistical Journey: Taming of the Skew! (Instructor’s Guide)

    Dr. Donald F. DeMoulin,
    Dr. William Allan Kritsonis
    Dr. Mary Alice Kritsonis
    (2009)

    Price: $199.00 (Includes Textbook, Instructor’s Guide, and 450 Chapter by Chapter Power Point Teaching CD: (Includes shipping, handling, and postage)

    Published by The AlexisAustin Group, Murrieta, California Distributed by National FORUM Journals

    ISBN 977-1-5130-5741-0 Paper

    ***** Available Now *****
    ————————————————————————————————————
    To order, make payment to National FORUM Journals in the amount of $199.00 and send to:
    National FORUM Journals
    17603 Bending Post Drive
    Houston, Texas 77095

    Name ________________________________________Purchase Order____________

    Institution/Department ___________________________________________________

    Address ________________________________________________________________

    City _________________________ Zip __________________

  11. About Dr. William Allan Kritsonis
    Remarks by Jennifer Butcher
    August 22nd 2008

    I have the privilege of introducing Dr. William Allan Kritsonis. Dr. Kritsonis earned a Bachelor’s degree from Central Washington University in Ellensburg, Washington. He earned his Master’s in Education from Seattle Pacific University and his PhD from the University of Iowa. He also was a Visiting Scholar at both Columbia University in New York, and Stanford University, Palo Alto, California.
    Dr. Kritsonis has served education as a teacher, principal, and superintendent of schools. He has earned tenure as a professor at the highest academic rank at two major universities. He was also a professor at Louisiana State University in Baton Rouge.
    In 2004, Dr. Kritsonis was recognized as the Central Washington University Alumni Association Distinguished Alumnus for the College of Education and Professional Studies.
    In 2005, Dr. Kritsonis was an Invited Visiting Lecturer at the Oxford Round Table in the University of Oxford, Oxford, England.
    Dr. Kritsonis is a well respected author of more than 500 articles in professional journals and several books. In 1983, Dr. Kritsonis founded the NATIONAL FORUM JOURNALS. These publications represent a group of highly respected academic journals in education.
    Currently, Dr. Kritsonis is a Professor in the PhD Program in Educational Leadership here at Prairie View A&M University. At PV he has helped graduate students publish over 400 articles in professional journals and most are indexed in ERIC.
    Dr. Kritsonis has dedicated himself to the advancement of educational leadership and to the education of students at all levels.
    On July 26th this summer, Dr. Kritsonis was inducted into the William H. Parker Hall of Honor. He was nominated by doctoral and master’s degree students at Prairie View. It is my pleasure to welcome Dr. William Allan Kritsonis.

  12. Howdy very cool web site!! Guy .. Excellent .. Amazing .. I will bookmark your blog and take the feeds also?I am satisfied to seek out numerous helpful information here within the submit, we want develop extra strategies on this regard, thank you for sharing. . . . . .

  13. Anonymous says:

    “You must earn respect in anything you do.” William Allan Kritsonis, PhD

  14. Anonymous says:

    1966 Trojan Baseball Team
    2009 Hall of Fame Inductee – Team
    The Trojan’s Baseball team won the 1966 Washington Athletic Association of Community Colleges (WAACC) title. They advanced to the WAACC state tournament by first capturing the Northern Division title in league play with a 22-9 overall record. In the state tournament, the Trojans beat Spokane twice to win their first ever WAACC state title. The tournament was played in Centralia.
    Players
    Jeff Nelson, Tom Vang, Bill Tsoukalas, Bill Kritsonis, Dave Powers, Larry D’Assisi, Joe Raffaele, Chuck Phelps, Don Krisman, Toby Elwood, Joe Knudson, Bill Holt, Larry Martin, Mike McGrath, Rick Greaves, Jack Van Vleck, Bruce Lafromboise, Tony Hawkins, Craig Whitney, Bill Parker, Rod Nelson, Gary Powers, Bill Yeager.
    Coach
    Marv Cross, Head Coach

    1966 BASEBALL TEAM

    Accomplishments
    After a 22-9 season, EvCC went on to beat Spokane in the Washington Athletic Association of Community Colleges (WAACC) tournament, which was held in Centralia.

    Players
    Larry D’Assisi, Toby Elwood, Rick Greaves, Tony Hawkins, Bill Holt, Joe Knudson, Don Krisman, Bill Kritsonis, Bruce Lafromboise, Larry Martin, Mike McGrath, Jeff Nelson, Rod Nelson, Bill Parker, Chuck Phelps, Dave Powers, Gary Powers, Joe Raffaele, Bill Tsoukalas, Jack Van Vleck, Tom Vang, Craig Whitney, Bill Yeager.

  15. Anonymous says:

    Dr. William Allan Kritsonis

    Selected Publications and Mentored Research 2004-2010

    2010

    Miller, Q. & Kritsonis, W.A. (2010) Implementation of the Ways of Knowing through the
    Realms of Meaning as a Conceptual Framework in Professional Learning Communities
    As They Impact Strategic Planning in Education. National FORUM of Applied of
    Educational Research Journal, 23 (1&2)

    Stevenson, R.D. & Kritsonis, W.A. (2010) Utilizing the Six Realms of Meaning in Improving
    Campus Standardized Test Scores through Team Teaching and Strategic Planning.
    National FORUM of Applied Educational Research Journal, 23 (1&2)

    Thompson, C. & Kritsonis, W.A. (2010) Implementing the Ways of Knowing through the
    Realms of Meaning for Strategic Planning in K-12. National FORUM of Applied
    Educational Research Journal, 23 (1&2)

    Ishaq, K. & Kritsonis, W.A. (2010) School Leadership Makes a Difference: A Sociological
    Perspective of Effective Strategic Planning and Integrating the Realms of Meaning
    Into School Improvement. National FORUM of Applied Educational Research
    Journal, 23 (1&2)

    Thompson, B. A. & Kritsonis, W. (2010) Making National, State, District, and Local Plans
    Work Using the Six Realms of meaning as it Relates to Strategic Planning in Educational
    Leadership. National FORUM of Applied Educational Research Journal, 23 (1&2)

    Lewis, C. & Kritsonis, W.A. (2010) Educational Leaders Incorporating Ways of Knowing
    through the Realms of Meaning to Create Successful Strategic Plans for Public Schools.
    National FORUM of Teacher Education Journal, 23 (1&2)

    Doctor, T.L. & Kritsonis, W.A. (2010) Postmodernism and Ways of Knowing through the
    Realms of Meaning: New Answers to Lingering Problems. National FORUM of
    Applied Educational Research Journal, 23 (1&2)

    Palmer, D. & Kritsonis, W.A. (2010) Strategic Planning in Schools: A View Through the Lends
    Of the Six Ways of Knowing through the Realms of Meaning. National FORUM of
    Applied Educational Research Journal, 23 (1&2)

    Miller-Williams, S. & Kritsonis, W.A. (2010) A Systems Approach to Comprehensive School
    Reform: Using the Realms of Meaning and the Baldridge Model as a Systems
    Framework. National FORUM of Applied Educational Research Journal, 23 (1&2)

    Gardiner, S.A., & Kritsonis, W.A. (2010) The Virtues of Postmodernism Electrified with the
    Use of Six Realms of Meaning in Strategic Planning. National FORUM of Applied
    Educational Research Journal, 23 (1&2)

    Diggs, D. & Kritsonis, W.A. (2010) Strategic Excellence Thorugh the Empowerment of
    Postmodernism and the Realms of Meaning. National FORUM of Applied Educational
    Research Journal, 23 (1&2)

    Blackbourn, J. M. & Kritsonis, W.A. (2010) The Question Every Teacher Educator Must Ask.
    National FORUM of Teacher Education Journal, 20 (1&2)

    Doctor, T.L. & Kritsonis, W.A. (2010) Postmodernism and Ways of Knowing through the
    Realms of Meaning: New Answers to Lingering Problems. National FORUM of
    Teacher Education Journal, 20 (1&2)

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